Penelusuran Referensi Pangan dan Gizi
Children’s eating patterns and food preferences are established early in life. When children refuse nutritious foods such as fruits or vegetables, mealtimes can become stressful or confrontational, and children may be denied both the nutrients they require and healthy, responsive interactions with caregivers. Caregivers who are inexperienced or stressed, and those who have poor eating habits themselves, may be most in need of assistance to facilitate healthy, nutritious mealtime behavior with their children (Maureen, M.B. and Kristen, M.H., 2007).
Eating patterns have developmental, family and environmental influences. As children become developmentally able to make the transition to family foods, their internal regulatory cues for hunger and satiety are often overridden by familial and cultural patterns (Maureen, M.B. and Kristen, M.H., 2007).
Food preferences are also influenced by associated conditions. Children are likely to avoid food that has been associated with unpleasant physical symptoms, such as nausea or pain. They may also avoid food that has been associated with the anxiety or distress that often occurs during meals characterized by arguments and confrontations.
Household food habit
The term eating habits (or food habits ) refers to why and how people eat, which foods they eat, and with whom they eat, as well as the ways people obtain, store, use, and discard food. Individual, social, cultural, religious, economic, environmental, and political factors all influence people’s eating habits (Judith C.R., 2010)
Children develop their eating habits and food preferences as they grow (Birch & Fisher, 1998). Many different factors influence food habits in a complex interactive way. Parents and the family environment are very important for young children to learn and develop food preferences and eating habits in a dual way (Story et al, 2002). On the one hand as providers of the food children eat, family members are also relevant role models and establish rules and norms related to food and eating practices.
Increasing familiarity with the taste of a food increases the likelihood of acceptance. Caregivers can facilitate the introduction of new foods by pairing the new food with preferred food and presenting the new food repeatedly until it is no longer “new” (Birch LL, 1992)
One of major factors that may constrain caregiver in their ability to provide care was workload and time constraints. These commitments include household production, particularly time-intensive and labour-intensive tasks, and other economic activities (WHO, 1998).
The support provided to the primary caregiver can include explicit child care assistance or information or emotional support provided to the caregiver. One of the most important types of social support is alternate child care. The abilities of the caregiver to provide care may be particularly important for complementary feeding.
Caregiver practices that could affect the child’s nutrient intake include (1) adaptation of feeding to the child’s characteristics, taking into consideration psychomotor capabilities (such as use of finger foods, spoon handling ability, ability to munch or chew) and appetite; (2) responsiveness of the caregiver to feeding situations, including encouraging the child to eat, offering additional foods, providing second helpings, stimulating eating through threats, timing of feeding, responding to poor appetite, and interacting positively with the child; and (3) appropriateness of the feeding situation, including the organization and regularity of feeding, supervision and protection of the child while eating, frequency of feeding, monitoring with whom the child eats, and elimination of distractions during eating (Engel, P.L, et,al., 1997)
National-level adequacy of food does not ensure that all households are food secure. Availability food at household-level is determined by both physical access to food and adequate purchasing power. While access to adequate food at the household level is needed to satisfy nutrition levels for all members of a household, nutrition security also depends on non-food factors such as satisfactory health and hygiene conditions and social practices. Thus household food security is one but not the only necessary condition for achieving the overall nutritional well-being of individuals (Sharma, R.P., 1992).
There is no doubt that the cost of food is a primary determinant of food choice. Whether cost is prohibitive depends fundamentally on a person’s income and socio-economic status. Low-income groups have a greater tendency to consume unbalanced diets and in particular have low intakes of fruit and vegetables (De Irala-Estevez et al. 2000). However, access to more money does not automatically equate to a better quality diet but the range of foods from which one can choose should increase.
Accessibility to shops is another important physical factor influencing food choice, which is dependent on resources such as transport and geographical location. Healthy food tends to be more expensive when available within towns and cities compared to supermarkets on the outskirts (Donkin et al. 2000). However, improving access alone does not increase purchase of additional fruit and vegetables, which are still regarded as prohibitively expensive (Dibsdall et al. 2003).
The issue of households’ ability to ensure continuous access to food over time is often neglected. Food security concerns of adequacy, stability and access are often viewed from a short-term perspective. However, households and societies may achieve temporary food security at the cost of substantial insecurity in the future. For instance, land, forests and other natural resources may be overexploited to ensure short-term food security. Households also resort to a number of strategies for coping with food insecurity during food crises and famine (Buchanan-Smith and Lambert, 1991). These include sales of assets, borrowing, migration and overexploitation of common property resources. For some households the consequent reductions in endowments may be temporary. Others may not be able to recoup their lost endowments and as a result become increasingly more vulnerable and insecure. Thus it is important to evaluate current household food security within the framework of long-term sustainability of access to food (Sharma, R.P., 1992).